ColorMix.gif (1372 bytes) Color
A. General Color Information  B.  Color Science/Theory  C.  Color and Computers

Appearance R.W.G. Hunt, "The Specification of Colour Appearance:  I.  Concepts and Terms,"
Color Research and Application, Vol 2, No 2, Summer 1977, pp. 55-68

R.W.G. Hunt, "The Specification of Colour Appearance:  II.  Effects of Changes in Viewing Conditions,"
Color Research and Application, Vol 2, No 3, Fall 1977, pp. 109-120

Artists and Pigments Dated history of artists and pigments, dated color theories, techniques of the past, past color theories.  www.realcolorwheel.com/1artists.htm 

Color Wheels
www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/wcolor.html 

Real Color Wheel
www.realcolorwheel.com/colorwheel.htm 

Astronomy Color In Astronomical Photos:  A Semi-Philosophical Discussion
www.astropix.com/HTML/I_ASTROP/COLOR.HTM 

What Color are the Stars?  (some pixel RGB values)
www.vendian.org/mncharity/dir3/starcolor 

Bibliography
[Byrne97A] Alex Byrne and David R. Hilbert (editors), Readings on Color:   The Philosophy of Color (volume 1), MIT Press, 1997.
[Kaiser96] Peter K. Kaiser and Robert M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, Optical Society of America, 1996.
[Nassau98] Kurt Nassau (editor), Color for Science, Art and Technology, North-Holland, 1998.

Color Matters Bibliography
www.colormatters.com/biblio.html

See bibliography section on Color Science page or Color and Computers page

Causes Causes of Color
http://webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/index.html

Causes of Color in Minerals
http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~eps2/wisc/L7c3.html 

Causes of Color in Minerals and Gemstones
www.attawaygems.com/NMFG/causes_of_color.html 

Kurt Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color:  The Fifteen Causes of Color, John Wiley, 1983.

Chroma Keying

Blue Screens (Chroma Blue):

The Blue Screen Page

www.seanet.com/Users/bradford/bluscrn.html 

Color Blindness

How to make figures and presentations that are friendly to color blind people
http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/index.html 

The Color Vision Store
www.colorblind.to/index.html

Color Blindness:  More Prevalent Among Males
www.hhmi.org/senses/b130.html 

Color Deficient Vision
www.visibone.com/colorblind 

[Fortner97, pp. 57-60, pp. 111-112 "lines of confusion"]

Color Defects and Genetics, [Byrne97B, Section V]
Color Blindness, [Byrne97B, Chapter 8]

Are you color blind?  (six Ishihara test diagrams)
colorblind3.jpg (9683 bytes)
www.everwonder.com/david/colorblind.html

A trichromat is a person with normal vision with three normal color receptors.  Color-blind individuals may be classified as dichromats, monochromats or anomalous trichromats.  Protanopia (red blindness, L cones are absent), deuteranopia (green blindness, M cones are absent), tritanopia (yellow-blue blindness).   "Color Blindness," Chapter 8, [Byrne97B] or Section 8.6 "Visual chromatic defects" in [Malacara2002].

Relative abundance of visual chromatic defects from [Malacara2002, Table 8.3, p. 139]

Type of 
visual defect
Visual defect Percentage of 
men affected
Percentage of 
woman affected
Trichromats None    
Anomalous 
Trichromats
Protanomalous2 1.08% 0.03%
Deuteranomalous2 4.63% 0.36%
Tritanomalous3 0.0% 0.00%
Dichromats Protanopes2 1.01% 0.02%
Deuteranopes2 1.27% 0.01%
Tritanopes3 0.005% 0.005%
Monochromats1   0.003% 0.002%

1 The incidence of monochromats is the lowest of all chromatic defects.

2 Percentages from Sharpe et al., "Opsin Genes, Cone Photopigments, Color Vision, and Color Blindness," in Color Vision:  From Genes to Perception, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

3 Incidence of tritan defects has not been clearly determined.

What Color -- An Assistant to Color Blinds
http://hp.vector.co.jp/authors/VA011243/wcolor_e.htm

Color Vision -- Color Deficiency
http://www.firelily.com/opinions/color.html 

Vischeck can show you what your image looks like to people who are color blind, people with glaucoma or macular degeneration, elders and children.
www.vischeck.com

Ishihara Test for Color Blindness
www.toledo-bend.com/colorblind/Ishihara.html
 

Eric Rudd's UseNet Post about simulating color blindness

Françoise Viénot, et al, "Digital Video Colourmaps for Checking the Legibility of Displays by Dichromats,"
Color Research and Application, Vol 24, No 4, August 1999, pp. 243-252

Color Names

Color Chart
Color Chart, efg's Research Notes. PDF of Chart of R Colors

Unconstrained Color Naming Experiment  by Nathan Moroney at HP

Danny Rich's UseNet Post about the links here.

Comments about the above page in UseNet post (29 Nov 1999) by Mathew Brennesholtz (Philips):
This web site has the same basic information as Special Pub 440.   The site does not have some of the peripherial information.  For example, it does define "Blackboottopping" as "Black" in the NBS centroid color naming system, but does not tell you that this color was defined by the Panama Canal Commission.

Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names by Kenneth L. Kelly and Deanne B. Judd. National Bureau of Standards, Spec. Publ. 440, Dec. 1976, 189 pages.

The NBS/ISCC Color System -- The 267 Color Centroids
(includes Munsell and RGB values along with color swatch for each color centroid)

Standard Colors
http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byorg/abbey/an/an11/an11-4/an11-408.html

Color names and hex (or decimal) values:
www.users.interport.net/~giant/COLOR/1ColorSpecifier.html

Draas' Rainbow Color Chart
http://www.draac.com/colorchart.html 

UNIX X11 rgb.txt file with RGB values and color names often found in directory /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 

  Real Color Wheel (for artists).  
www.realcolorwheel.com/colorwheel.htm 

 Color Name Samples
www.oreilly.com/catalog/wdnut/excerpt/color_names.html 

Color Concepts and Names, [Byrne97B, Section II]

Crayola Crayons Color Names

Crayola® Crayon Chronology
www.crayola.com/colorcensus/history/chronology.cfm 

The 216-Color Webmaster's Palette (interactive javascript)
www.visibone.com/colorlab

Colors
blue Why is the sky blue?
http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/atmospheric/sky.htm
http://www.sky-watch.com/articles/skyblue.html

  Why is the sky blue?
www.realcolorwheel.com/sky.htm

brown Brown can only be produced by a yellow color surrounded by brighter areas.  We perceive something as brown instead of yellow when we think its reflectivity is very low.   In a sense brown is a physiological color. [Fortner97, p. 75]

C. James Bartleson, "Brown," Color Research and Application, Vol 1, No 4, Winter 1976, pp. 181-191

non-spectral www.yorku.ca/eye/nonspect.htm 
pink Desaturated color.
purple Not a spectral color.  The straight line connecting blue and red on a chromaticity chart is known as the "Line of Purples."

Where's Purple?
http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/colour/rainbow.html 

sky-blue-pink "Sky-Blue-Pink" by R.W.G. Hunt
Color Research and Application, Vol 1, No 1, Spring 1976, pp. 11-16
Companies

GretagMacbeth
www.gretagmacbeth.com

Find a PANTONE color
http://www.pantone.com/pages/pantone/colorfinder.aspx

Solux:  supplier of specialized daylight sources wherever color is an issue and natural lighting is required
www.solux.net

X-rite's Ask a Color Expert
http://www.xrite.com/services_contact.aspx

Contrast

Simultaneous Contrast
http://webexhibits.org/colorart/contrast.html 

Dyes Database of manufacturers producing Acid, Basic, Direct, Disperse, Mordant, Reactive, Vat Dyes and Pigments for application to Textiles, Leather, Plastics, Paper, and more

Colorants:  Dyes, [Nassau98, Chapter 11]

Education Color Education Page
www.solux.net/edu1.htm
Fall Colors
Fall Color Pictures
http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/fall/biglist_frame.cfm

FAQs Frequently Asked Questions

Charles Poynton's Gamma FAQ and Color FAQ, www.poynton.com

Food Color

Luis Almela and Jose A. Fernández-López, "Measuring the Color of Table Grapes,"
Color Research and Application, Vol 21, No 1, Feb 1996, pp. 50-54

Four-Color Theorem Graph theory problem.  See Mathematics page.
Gloss Edul N. Dalal and Kristen M. Natale, "The Effect of Gloss on Color,"
Color Research and Application, Vol 24, No 5, Oct 1999, pp. 369-376
Harmony Color Harmonies
www.easyrgb.com/harmonies.php 

Color Harmony
www.speedgraphics.net/color_harmony.htm 

 
Color Wheel Pro™ is a unique software tool that allows you to create harmonious color schemes and preview them on real-world examples:
www.color-wheel-pro.com 

History   History of Colored Ores
www.realcolorwheel.com/1color.htm#Tribes%20mined 

Dated history of artists and pigments, dated color theories, techniques of the past, past color theories
www.realcolorwheel.com/1artists.htm 

Information Envisioning Information
Chapter 5, Color and Information, pp. 81-95

Why Should Engineers and Scientists Be Worried About Color? discusses problems with "rainbow" colormap; nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio data; hue is not a good dimension for encoding magnitude information; luminance and saturation colormaps are better for representing continuous variations in data magnitude.  www.research.ibm.com/people/l/lloydt/color/color.HTM

Inks

Reproducing Color Images Using Custom Inks
www.cs.washington.edu/research/projects/grail2/www/pub/papers/Stollnitz98.pdf

Journals
John Wiley's Color research and application reports on the science, technology, and application of color in business, art, design, education, and industry.

Online ISSN: 1520-6378      Print ISSN: 0361-2317
www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0361-2317 
Leaf Color See Fall Colors above
Minerals Spectroscopy of Rocks and Minerals, and Principles of Spectroscopy
http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/PAPERS.refl-mrs/refl4.html 

Color in Minerals
http://webmineral.com/help/Color.shtml
 

Mineral Properties

Includes lists of minerals by color:  black, blue, brown, colorless, gray, green, orange, pink, red, white, yellow:  http://webmineral.com/determin.shtml 

 

Miscellaneous Color in Plants, Animals and Man, [Nassau98, Chapter 8]

The optics of feather color
Biophotonics International, March/April 1999, pp. 38-39

Color Preservation, [Nassau98, Chapter 12]

Newsgroup sci.engr.color

Story and charter of sci.engr.color newsgroup
www.colorpro.com/info/newsgrp.html 

Philosophy [Byrne97A]

A Bibliography of Color and Philosophy
http://web.mit.edu/philos/www/color-biblio.html 

Paul Skokowski's color philosophy page
http://www-csli.stanford.edu/~paulsko/resources.html

Pigments Colorants:  Organic and Inorganic pigments, [Nassau98, Chapter 10]

Pigments through the Ages:  Pigments in Paintings
http://webexhibits.org/pigments 

Psychology, Physiology, Perception

Why Should Engineers and Scientists Be Worried About Color?
discusses how standard uses of color can distort the meaning of the underlying data
www.research.ibm.com/people/l/lloydt/color/color.HTM

Daylight: Is it in the eye of the beholder?
www.solux.net/edu13.htm

Physiology and Psychophysics, [Byrne97B, Section III]

Rainbows See Color Science page
Research Groups, Organizations, Societies mcsl_logo_small.gif (1676 bytes)   RIT Munsell Color Science Laboratory
www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl

Inter-Society Color Council

www.iscc.org

Centre français de la Couleur (CFC)
www.cf-couleur.org 

Department of Colour Chemistry, University of Leeds
www.leeds.ac.uk/ccd

Colour Design Research Center
www.colourdesign.com/default2.htm

International Color Consortium,  www.color.org

Optical Society of America, www.osa.org

Colour and Imaging Technology, Institut für Technische Elektronik
www.ite.rwth-aachen.de (German)

Skin Color What Controls Variation in Human Skin Color?  Vol 1, No. 1, PLoS Biology

In the well-known book "Color Science," by Gunter Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles (2nd ed, Wiley, 1982) there are some spectral reflectance curves of human skin for a number of races.

"Skin Deep", Scientific American, October 2002, pp. 74-81.

Gretag-Macbeth Color Checker spectral reflectance data  (DarkSkin, LightSkin, other colors)

Automatic Quantitative Analysis of Healing Skin Wounds using Colour Digital Image Processing
http://www.worldwidewounds.com/1997/july/Berris/Berris-1.0.html

A Colour Histogram Clustering Technique for Tissue Analysis of Healing Skin Wounds,
Proc. 5th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications, 1997, pp. 693-697.

Finding Naked People
www.cs.hmc.edu/~fleck/naked.html

Naked People Skin Filter
www.cs.hmc.edu/~fleck/naked-skin.html

Sun Color

What color is the Sun?
http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/colour/Tspectrum.html 

All visible colors of the Sun, produced by passing the Sun's light through a prism-like device,
Astronomy Picture of the Day, 15 Aug 2000.
http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0008/solarspectrum_noao.jpg 

What color is the Sun? - chromaticity above the atmosphere
www.vendian.org/mncharity/dir3/starcolor/sun.html 

ASTM E 891 - Direct Solar Spectral Irradiance at Air Mass 2.0
ASTM E 892 - Solar Spectral Irradiance at Mass 2.0, 37deg Angle

See Color Temperature on Color Science page

Terminology R.W.G. Hunt, "Colour Terminology," Color Research and Application, Vol 3, No 2, Summer 1978, pp. 79-87.  Discusses set of psychometric terms and formulae, and their relationships to psychophysical and perceptual terms.
Vision

Peter K. Kaiser and Robert M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, Optical Society of America, 1996.

How Do We See Colors?
www.hhmi.org/senses/b110.html 

Red, Green, and Blue Cones
www.hhmi.org/senses/b120.html 

Molecular Biology of Human Vision Research by Jeremy Nathans
www.hhmi.org/research/investigators/nathans.html 

The Human Eye
www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/V/Vision.html

Processes in Biological Vision

Also see Computer Vision on efg's Image Processing Reference Library page
 

Five Dimensions of Vision Resolution
[Fortner97, p.43]

Dimension Discrimination
Between Locations
# of Simultaneous
Distinct Locations
X (spatial) ~1 arcminute ~millions
Y (spatial) ~1 arcminute ~millions
Z (spatial) ~feet ~100
C (color) ~50 nm
(wavelength)
3
(Red, Green, Blue "cones")
t (time) ~1/10 second N/A

The Joy of Visual Perception -- Web Book
www.yorku.ca/eye/thejoy.htm 

Color Vision, [Nassau98, Chapter 3]

Vision Science Tutorials, FAQs, and Other Resources
www.visionscience.com/vsInformation.html

Vision Science Bibliographies & Databases
www.visionscience.com/vsBibliographies.html

Vision Science Demonstrations
www.visionscience.com/vsDemos.html

Dictionary for the Study of Vision
http://cns-web.bu.edu/pub/laliden/WWW/Visionary/Visionary.html

Section 2.1, Elements of Visual Perception
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition

Useful Numbers in Vision Science
http://white.stanford.edu/~brian/numbers/numbers.html

Optical Illusions:  Human Vision Versus Machine Vision

MIT Professor Adelson's Illusions and Demos page
http://web.mit.edu/persci/people/adelson/illusions_demos.html



Updated 5 Nov 2011
Since 1 Nov 1998