ColorMix.gif (1372 bytes) Color
 A.  General Color Information  B.  Color Science/Theory   C.  Color and Computers

Background A Glossary of Color Science
www.uic.edu/~hilbert/Glossary.html


Glossary supporting Processes in Biological Vision by James T. Fulton
http://www.neuronresearch.net/vision/files/glossary.htm 

Bibliography
[Berger-Schunn94] Anni Berger-Schunn, Practical Color Measurement, John Wiley, 1994.
[Billmeyer81] Fred W. Billmeyer, Jr. and Max Saltzman, Principles of Color Technology (2nd edition), John Wiley & Sons, 1981.
[Byrne97B] Alex Byrne and David R. Hilbert (editors), Readings on Color:   The Science of Color (volume 2), MIT Press, 1997.
[Chamberlin80] G.J. Chamberlin and D.G. Chamberlin, Colour:  its measurement, computation and application, London:  Heyden & Son, Ltd., 1980.
[Fairchild97] Mark D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, Addison-Wesley, 1997
[Hunt92] R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring Colour (2nd edition), Ellis Horwood Series in Applied Science and Industrial Technology, 1992.
[Judd75] Deane B. Judd and Gunter Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry, John Wiley & Sons, 1975.
[MacAdam85] David L. MacAdam, Color Measurement -- Theme and Variations, Springer-Verlag, 1985.
[Nassau83] Kurt Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color:  The Fifteen Causes of Color, John Wiley, 1983.
[Nassau98] Kurt Nassau (editor), Color for Science, Art and Technology, North-Holland, 1998.
[Volz95] Volz, Hans G, Industrial Color Testing: Fundamentals and Techniques, John Wiley, 1995.
[Wyszecki82] Günter Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles, Color Science:  Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formula (2nd edition),
John Wiley & Sons, 1982.  (The color "bible")

Paperback, $60 (New paperback version, July 2000)

See bibliography section on General Color Info page or Color and Computers page

Blackbody See Color Temperature
Causes Causes of Color:  Explore the fifteen phenomena that create our colorful world
http://webexhibits.org/causesofcolors/index.html

Causes of color in gemstones
http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/1B.html

The Physics and Chemistry of Color:  The Fifteen Causes of Color, [Nassau83]
The Fifteen Causes of Color, [Nassau98, Chapter 4]
The Causes of Color, [Byrne97B, Chapter 1]

Chromatic Aberration www.yorku.ca/eye/chroaber.htm 
CIE
Chromaticity Diagrams

Chromaticity.gif (2862 bytes)

efg's Chromaticity Lab Report:  1931, 1960 or 1976 diagram using 1931 2-degree or 1964 10-degree data.

Shown at the left is the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram.  The "horseshoe" outline shows the spectral colors from approximately  420 to 680 nanometers.  The non-spectral "line of purples" connects 420 nm with 680 nm.  The triangular Maxwell triangle shows the gamut for SMPTE phosphors

Colour Rendering of Spectra
www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend  
Mitchell N Charity's comments about this article

Dan Bruton's Color Science page
http://www.midnightkite.com/color.html

Gernot Hoffman's CIE Color Space
http://www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/ciexyz29082000.pdf 

[Fortner97, Chapter 5]


Diagram courtesy of Photo Research

Color Theory and Pre-Press
www.cs.wpi.edu/~matt/courses/cs563/talks/color.html 

Contact Photo Research to purchase an 8.5-by-11" chart

 

1931 Chromaticity Diagram showing spectral "horse shoe" and Planckian locus

CIE Colorimetric Standard Observer Model

  

CIE chromaticity diagram showing isotemperature lines, which give correlated color temperature for illuminants that do not fall directly on the Planckian locus.

Figures 2.25 and 2.26 from [Judd75, pp. 167-168]

J. Schanda and M. Danyi, "Correlated Color-Temperature Calculations in the CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram", Color Research and Application, Vol 2, No 4, Winter 1977, pp. 161-163

  
  MacAdam Ellipses
www.kruschwitz.com/macadam.htm
 

LCD chromaticity coordinates as a function of ambient temperature for CyberDisplay active-matrix LCD:

 

Color Management
www.av8n.com/imaging/color-management.htm 

Also, see Gamuts below.

Color Charts Color Chart
Color Chart, efg's Research Notes. PDF of Chart of R Colors

See Section B, Databases and Test Targets in efg's Image Processing Reference Library

Gernot Hoffman's PS-Swatch Spot -- 1137 Color Patches

Bruce Lindbloom's ColorChecker RGB Summaries, Spreadsheets and Lab TIFF File

ISCC-NBS Centroid Color Charts (information about)
http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byorg/abbey/an/an11/an11-4/an11-408.html

Color names and hex (or decimal) values:
www.users.interport.net/~giant/COLOR/1ColorSpecifier.html

  Real Color Wheel for Artists:  This is the only color wheel like this in the world, it's original and made for the naturally realistic painting artist.
www.realcolorwheel.com/colorwheel.htm 

Color Wheels
www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/color13.html

Hue Indication Chart
www.sdc.org.uk/publications/huechart.htm

DMC-to-Anchor Floss Color Conversion Chart
http://wonderful-things.com/floss.htm 

Also see Color Names on the General Information page

ColorChart.gif (1060 bytes) efg's ColorCharts Lab Report shows how to display a color chart for comparison with a GretagMacbeth ColorChecker, or a chart of Netscape colors in hue order
Color Conversion

Charles Poynton's Gamma FAQ and Color FAQ, www.poynton.com 

Colour Space Conversions by Adrian Ford and Alan Roberts
www.poynton.com/PDFs/coloureq.pdf 

Color Conversion Formulas
www.easyrgb.com/math.html
 

Color Transformation -- Matrix Operations for Image Processing
http://www.graficaobscura.com/matrix/index.html

Color Metric Converter (L*a*b* Calculator or RGB Calculator:  L*a*b* / RGB / XYZ))
http://colorpro.com/info/tools/convert.htm 

Coordinate Converter:  xyY, XYZ, RGB, upvpY, Lab, Lub
www.it.lut.fi/research/color/coordinates/coordinates.html

A Standard Default Color Space for the Internet - sRGB
www.color.org/sRGB.html

CMY/RGB
Digital Image Processing
, p. 228
Computer Graphics Principles and Practice , pp. 588-589

RGB/HSV
Computer Graphics Principles and Practice, pp.590-592

HueSaturationByValue.gif (5695 bytes) efg's HSV Lab Report

RGB/HLS:  There is an error in Computer Graphics Principles and Practice, Foley, et al, 1996, pp. 592-596.  The formula uses a lower case "el", "l", and defines in C:

m2 = (l < 0.5) ? (l * (l+s)):(l+s-l*s)

This is a perfect example of why "l" (a lower case "el") should NEVER be used as a variable name, and why a programming convention -- to use lower case letters in variable names -- should not override the problem definition, which defines the color space using an "L".

The 1982 version of the book, in Pascal, shows the correct formula (but alas, also used a lower case "l"):

if   l <= 0.5
then m2 := l*(1+s)    //  NOTE the one, in "1+s", here
else m2 := l + s - l*s 

[Thanks to Gary Freestone, IBM Global Services Australia, for bringing this to my attention.  efg, Sept. 2001.]

HowTo:  Converting Colors Between RGB and HLS (HBS)  [includes C code]
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q29240/

RGB/HSI
The Image Processing Handbook, p. 49
Digital Image Processing, p. 229-237

RGB/IHS
"IHS Color Coordinate System"
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications, Section 3.4.7e

RGB/YIQ
The Image Processing Handbook, p. 47
Digital Image Processing, p. 228
Computer Graphics Principles and Practice, pp. 589-590

RGB/XYZ
Computer Graphics Principles and Practice, pp.585-587

RGB/XYZ
www.brucelindbloom.com/index.html?Eqn_RGB_to_XYZ.html 

YUV (YVU-9, YV-12, UYVY) to RGB
yvu.gif (989 bytes) efg's YUV Lab Report
Luminance, Y = 0.30R + 0.59G + 0.11B
Color Difference (blue), CB (also known as U) = B - Y
Color Difference (red), CR (also known as V) = R - Y

 

YCrCb to RGB

YCrCbToRGB.GIF (1475 bytes)
  
This can be implemented using only  integer arithmetic as:
YCrCbToRGBInteger.GIF (1465 bytes)
  

RGB to YCrCb

RGBToYCrCb.GIF (1460 bytes)
 
This can be implemented using only integer arithmetic as
RGBToYCrCbInteger.gif (1416 bytes)


Source:  EPIX XCIP User's Manual, pp. 5-4 - 5-5.
or ToRGB and FromRGB in xcformat structure
in XCOBJ "C" Library Reference Manual

RGB/YCrCb (YCrCb = YUV)  (cited CCIR Rec 709)
Tom Clune's UseNet Post

YCC colour space and image compression
http://paulbourke.net/texture_colour/ycc/

Color Matching Functions Hugh Fairman et al provide details about "How the CIE 1931 Color-Matching Functions Were Derived from Wright-Guild Data," Vol 22, No 1, Feb 1997, Color Research and Application.

"Derivation of the 1964 CIE 10-degree XYZ Colour-Matching Functions and Their Applicability in Photometry" in Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 2001, Color Research and Application.

R. W. G. Hunt, "The Heights of the CIE Colour-Matching Functions" in Vol. 22 No. 5, Oct 1997, Color Research and Application.

Michael H. Brill, "Do Tristimulus Values Have Units?", Color Research and Application, Vol. 21, No. 4, Feb 1996, pp. 310-313

Color Models See Color Spaces below
Color Rendering Color Rendeing:  Asking the Question text  figures
Color Rendering:  a calculation that estimates colorimetric shifts  text  figures
www.jimworthey.com
Color Rendering Index Color Rendering Index:  Calculating CRI
www.kruschwitz.com/cri.htm 

[Hunt87, Appendix 7]

Color Spaces

ColorSpace program
www.couleur.org 

RGB Colour Space
http://paulbourke.net/texture_colour/colourspace/index.html

Historical Color Systems
www.uni-mannheim.de/fakul/psycho/irtel/colsys 

Charles Poynton's Gamma FAQ and Color FAQ, www.poynton.com 

The Decoding Model:  a Symmetrical Model of Color Vision

www.survivor99.com/colorforum/The%20Decoding%20Model.html 

Section 7.3, High Performance Computer Imaging, Working with color spaces:
Shows diagrams  7.9 and7.10 of device-independent and device-dependent colors spaces.
Mentions applications for L*a*b*, XYZ, L*u*v*, Linear RGB and variants, R'G'B' (RGB 709),
YUV, YIQ, YCbCr 601, YCbCr 709, PhotoYCC, CMY, CMYK

RGB, CMY, CMYK, RYB, YIQ, HSI, HSV, HSB, HLS
[Fortner97, Chapter 6, pp. 119-]

Section 4.6.2, Color Models, pp. 225-237
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition

Gernot Hoffman's Color Order Systems:  RGB, HLS, HSB
http://www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/hlscone03052001.pdf 

Gernot Hoffmann's UseNet Post about problems with CMYK when converting form RGB, in particular note this:

CMY to RGB depends on gamut compression, gamut clipping,
RGB primaries definition, white point definition.
RGB - CMY - RGB is NOT reversible.
The naive formula R=1-C and so on is wrong. 


Natural Color System, Scandinavian Colour Institute -- A Centre for Colour
www.ncscolour.com 

Anders Hård et al, "NCS, Natural Color System -- from Concept to Research and Applications.  Part I.", Color Research and Application, Vol 21, No 3, June 1996, p. 180-205

Anders Hård et al, "NCS, Natural Color System -- from Concept to Research and Applications.  Part II.", Color Research and Application, Vol 21, No 3, June 1996, p. 206-208


Color Spaces,  pp. 47-55
RGB, YIQ, HSI, Lab,
The Image Processing Handbook

Section 7.3, Working with color spaces, pp. 219-239
XYZ, L*a*b*, L*u*v*, RGB, YUV, YIQ, CMY, CMYK
High Performance Computer Imaging

Graphic CIE L*a*b* Calculator
http://colorpro.com/info/tools/labcalc.htm 

CIE Lab L* 80  = Munsel Value 8:  Danny Rich's UseNet Post

L*u*v*
Computer Graphics Principles and Practice, p 584

I1I2I3 Color Space
Walter Hafner's UseNet Post about Colour Image Segmentation

UVW Color Space:  Joann Taylor's UseNet Post

A model of colour vision for predicting colour appearance, [Hunt87, Chapter 8]

ViewerRGB.gif (1080 bytes) efg's ShowImage Lab Report  shows coordinates RGB, HSV, HLS, CMYK, Intensity, Lightness, YIQ; counts unique RGB colors in image; displays/prints histograms
ColorRange.gif (1115 bytes) efg's ColorRange Lab Report shows how to include/exclude regions of an image based on RGB or HSV quantities
HueSaturationByValue.gif (5695 bytes) efg's HSV Lab Report
yvu.gif (989 bytes) efg's YUV Lab Report
Color Temperature What Color are the Stars?  (some pixel RGB values)
www.vendian.org/mncharity/dir3/starcolor 

What Color is a Blackbody?  (some pixel RGB values)
www.vendian.org/mncharity/dir3/blackbody 

Black Body Radiation
www.egglescliffe.org.uk/physics/astronomy/blackbody/bbody.html 

Martí Maria's UseNet Post about obtaining white point from color temperature

Neil Okamoto's UseNet Post with a C program to compute correlated color temperature based on Robertson's method in Wyszecki & Stiles, p.224-229.

Ákos Borbély et al, "The Concept of Correlated Colour Temperature Revisited", 
Color Research and Application, Vol. 26, No. 6, Dec. 2001:  "Correlated colour temperature is a one-dimensional description of the colour of near-white light sources. .. We recommend changing the definition of correlated colour temperature from a visual definition to a mathematical one ..."

J. Schanda, M. Meszaros, G. Czibula, "Calculating Correlated Color Temperature with a Desktop Programmable Calculator," Color Research and Application, Vol 3, No 2, Summer 1978, pp. 65-69

F. Grum, S. B. Saunders, D.L. MacAdam, "Concept of Correlated Color Temperature," Color Research and Application, Vol 3, No 1, Spring 1978, pp. 17-21

J. Schanda and M. Danyi, "Correlated Color-Temperature Calculations in the CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram", Color Research and Application, Vol 2, No 4, Winter 1977, pp. 161-163

Spectra -- wavelength to RGB, Chromaticity Diagram, Blackbody Radiation (excellent)
Dan Bruton's Color Science page, http://www.midnightkite.com/color.html

Colour Rendering of Spectra
www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend  
Mitchell N Charity's comments about this article

Rendering Spectra, http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/explain/optics/rendering.html 

Daylight Education page
www.solux.net/edu2.htm

White Points Defined in CIE 1931 Standard
Name x y Color Temperature Comments
A 0.4476 0.4075 2854 K Incandescent Light
B 0.3840 0.3516 4874 K Direct Sunlight
C 0.3101 0.3162 6774 K Indirect Sunlight
D5000 0.3457 0.3586 5000 K Bright Incandescent Light
D6500 0.3127 0.3297 6504 K "Natural" Daylight
E 0.3333 0.3333 5500 K Normalized Reference

See Sun Color on General Color Info page

[Fortner97, pp. 76-79, 109-110]

[MacAdam85, Chapter 6]

Color Theory Online Graphic Design Degree:  Color Theory and Application
http://www.onlinegraphicdesigndegree.com/resources/color-theory/

Color Theory is a set of principles used to create harmonious color combinations. Color relationships can be visually represented with a color wheel—the color spectrum wrapped onto a circle.  www.color-wheel-pro.com/color-theory-basics.html 

 

ColorMix.gif (1017 bytes) efg's ColorMix Lab Report demonstrates additive and subtractive color primaries
RGBColorsIcon.gif (992 bytes) efg's RGBColors Lab Report shows display of up to 16.8 million colors
MaxwellTriangleSmall.gif (1250 bytes) efg's Maxwell Triangle Lab Report shows mixing of primary colors
VisibleLight.jpg (1178 bytes)
efg's Spectra Lab Report shows wavelength to RGB calculations
(and hydrogen emission/absorption spectra)
Prism.jpg (1171 bytes) efg's Split Lab Report shows how to splie a 24-bits/pixel image into RGB or HSV color planes

Fundamentals of Color Science, [Nassau98, Chapter 1]

Color Theory:  What were early studies of Color?
http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/1B.html

Color Science (discusses color matching and standard illuminants)
www.research.ibm.com/image_apps/colorsci.html

"Color and Reflectance" in Image Physics
http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/CVonline/physics.htm

Achromatic and Colored Light
Computer Graphics Principles and Practice, pp. 563-604

Color Theory and Pre-Press
www.cs.wpi.edu/~matt/courses/cs563/talks/color.html

Colour Rendering of Spectra
www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend  
Mitchell N Charity's comments about this article

Spectra -- wavelength to RGB, Chromaticity Diagram, Blackbody Radiation (excellent)
Dan Bruton's Color Science page, http://www.midnightkite.com/color.html

Quantification of Data from Color Images
www.agron.iastate.edu/soilphysics/ewing_color.html

Also see Conversions above

Color Wheels Interactive Color Wheel (Java Applet)
Experiment with saturation, intensity, hue, and luma
http://r0k.us/graphics/SIHwheel.html 

Color Wheels
http://daphne.palomar.edu/design/cwheel.html 

  Real Color Wheel for Artists:  This is the only color wheel like this in the world, it's original and made for the naturally realistic painting artist.  
www.realcolorwheel.com/colorwheel.htm 

Contrast

Contrast of Color.  Discusses "Delta-E," MPCD (minimum perceptible color difference) and JND (just noticable difference) using L*a*b* coordinates.  Mathew's Brennesholtz's UseNet Post.   Followup UseNet Post comments by Danny Rich.

Conferences See Conferences on General Color Info page
Databases Color & Vision Research laboratory and database
www.cvrl.org 

1964 and 1931 XYZ Color Matching Functions and Chromaticity Coordinates
http://www.cvrl.org/cie.htm 
(Note:  the icons with dashed lines are 5 nm interval data; the icons with solid lines are 1 nm intervals.)

Ultimate Internet Coloring Database
http://www.colorpro.com/info/data/projects.html 

1964 and 1931, Spectral Tristimulus Values and Chromaticity Coordinates
www.physics.sfasu.edu/astro/color/cie_xyz1964.html

Color Spectra Database, Lappeenranta University of Technology
www.it.lut.fi/research/color/database/database.html

CIE Standard Illuminant C between 320 nm - 770 nm at 5 nm intervals.  Deja News Post

Andrew Glassner published the spectral reflectance data in 5 nm increments between 380 and 775nm in an appendix of his book Principles of Digital Image Synthesis.

USGS Digital Spectral Library :  spectral reflectance of hundreds of materials http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral-lib.html

Spectral-Sensitivity Curves of Kodak Films
http://www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/support/techPubs/e182/e182.pdf 

Differences CIE Colour Difference Formulae, [Hunt87, pp. 66-67]
CMC Colour Difference Formula, [Hunt87, p. 69]

Alan R. Robertson, "The 1976 Color-Difference Formulae," Color Research and Application, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 1977, pp. 7-11

X-Rite's Guide to Understanding Color Comunication:
- Delta CIELAB, CIELUV.
http://www.xrite.com/documents/literature/en/L10-001_Understand_Color_en.pdf 

LabTolerances.gif (22578 bytes)

Colour Metric (explains color "distance")
www.compuphase.com/cmetric.htm

[Berger-Schunn94, Chapter 2, including MacAdam ellipses, p. 37]

Calculation of Color Difference
[MacAdam85, Chapter 8, including MacAdam ellipses, p. 131]

Mathew's Brennesholtz's UseNet Post discusses "Delta-E," MPCD (minimum perceptible color difference) and JND (just noticable difference) using L*a*b* coordinates.  "Using a delta-E = 1 threshold, M. R. Pointer (The Number of Discernible Colours, Color Research and Application, 23:1 February 1998) calculated that there are 2.28 million discernable color/luminance combinations. Other studies ... show that printing inks give 1.6 million colors and EBU phosphors give 1.35 million colors. These are far less than the 16 million colors claimed by 8 bit/color video cards, never mind 10 or 12 bit video systems.  Obviously, some of these color/luminance combinations are indistinguishable from each other."  Followup UseNet Post comments by Danny Rich.

Error Propagation Analysis Peter D Burns and Roy S Berns, "Error Propagation Analysis in Color Measurement and Imaging,"  Color Research and Application, Vol 22, No 4, Aug. 1997,  pp. 280-289

J. L. Gardner, "Uncertainty Estimation in Colour Measurement," Color Research and Application, Vol 25, No 5, October 2000, pp. 349-355

FAQs See FAQs on General Color Info page
Gamut Mapping

Gamut Mapping in Munsell Constant Hue Sections
http://www.inventoland.net/imaging/JEI/159.PDF 

Gamuts

Visualization of Expanded Printing Gamuts Using 3-Dimensional Convex Hulls (see example above)
by Karl E. Guyler, Hallmark Cards published by TAGA.  Used here with permission.

Color Management
www.av8n.com/imaging/color-management.htm 

Color matters, too!
- color gamut of all PANTONE Textile Color System® colors
- color gamut of all RAL colors
- color gamut of all colors printable on Epson Stylus Photo 750/1200
www.arahne.si/colors.html

Color Reproduction -- The Basics
http://www.tu-harburg.de/rzt/tuinfo/periph/drucker/Color_Reproduktion

Stephen D Glasscock's UseNet Post about Printer Color Gamut

Illuminants, Sources, Lighting

Illuminant Types
www.xrite.com/documents/apps/public/whitepapers/Ca00001a.pdf

Understanding Illuminants
www.xrite.com/documents/apps/public/whitepapers/Ca00002a.pdf

Don Klipstein's Lighting Info Site
www.misty.com/~don/light.html

Demonstration of Colors and Their Spectra
www.it.lut.fi/research/color/demonstration/demonstration.html

Radiosity Resources 
www.helios32.com/resources.htm 

SoLux Spectral Power Distribution Curves
www.solux.net/edu15.htm

Ultraviolet Radiation Primer
www.solux.net/uv.htm

Journals See Journals on General Color Info page
Links Paul Skokowski's Color and Vision Links
http://www-csli.stanford.edu/~paulsko/resources.html

Bruce Lindbloom's Color page
www.brucelindbloom.com 

Color Matters Links
www.colormatters.com/link.html

Color Links, www.it.lut.fi/research/color/links.html

Links to Color Science
www.zwisler.de/color.html

HardColor -- A source of information about color imaging in hardware and software
http://color.hardeberg.com 

Luminance

P. W. Trezona, "Luminance:  Its Use and Misuse," Color Research and Application, Vol 25, No 2, April 2000, pp. 145-147

Charles Poynton's UseNet Post and  Follow Up about Density and Lightness

Maxwell Triangle   
efg's
Maxwell Triangle Lab Report shows mixing of primary colors
Measurement, Color

The Measurement of Color, [Nassau98, Chapter 2]
Color Measurement, [Byrne97B, Section II]
Color Measurement -- Theme and Variations, [MacAdam85]
Measuring Colour, [Hunt87]

Measurement, Lighting and Light
Light Measurement Handbook

The book is online and free but registration is required.

Physics Newton’s Prism Experiment and Goethe’s Objections

Physics and Chemistry of Fireworks
http://montessorimuddle.org/2011/07/14/the-physics-and-chemistry-of-fireworks/

Prism

Dispersion of light using a prism
www.physics.mun.ca/~jjerrett/dispersion/prism.html 

Bad Physics:  Prism Misconception

http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/miscon/miscon4.html#prism

Rainbows How does a rainbow work?

Originally from http://home.earthlink.net/~nwwallace/rainbows.htm but this link is now stale.
From Wayback Machine:
http://web.archive.org/web/20010406090216/http://home.earthlink.net/~nwwallace/rainbows.htm

Rainbows and other colors produced by dispersive refraction
http://webexhibits.org/causesofcolors/13.html
 

Rainbow
www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/java/Rainbow/rainbow.html 

Every Color in the Rainbow
www.crayola.com/educators/lessons/display.cfm?id=74 

Bad Physics:  There are NOT seven colors in the rainbow
www.eskimo.com/~billb/miscon/miscon4.html#bow 

Rendering Spectra Rendering Spectra
  http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/explain/optics/rendering.html 

Colour Rendering of Spectra
www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend  
Mitchell N Charity's comments about this article

Reproduction

Colour Reproduction Publications, including
"Spectral Colour Prediction Model for a Transparent Fluorescent Ink on Paper"
"Specifying color differences in a linear color space (LEF)"
"Multi-level Colour Halftoning Algorithms"
"Dithering Algorithms for Variable Dot Size Printers"
"Rotated Dispersed Dither: a New Technique for Digital Halftoning"
"Chromaticity Gamut Enhancement by Heptatone Multi-Color Printing"
http://diwww.epfl.ch/w3lsp/pub/publications/colour

Color Reproduction -- The Basics
http://www.tu-harburg.de/rzt/tuinfo/periph/drucker/Color_Reproduktion

Standard Observer 1931 2-degree and 1964 10-degree standard observers are described in efg's Chromaticity Diagrams

J. J. Vos, "Colorimetric and Photometric Properties of a 2-degree Fundamental Observer", Color Research and Application, Vol 3, No. 3, Winter 1978, pp. 125-128.  Describes the "1978 2-degree fundamental observer."

Texture and Colour
Paul Bourke's page http://paulbourke.net/texture_colour/
Tristimulus values See Color Matching Functions
Vectorscope   See efg's Vectorscope project

Updated 5 Nov 2011
Since 10 Sept 2000