Image Processing
A. B. C. D. E.
General Info Databases & Test Targets Algorithms Medical Applications Software Packages

Contents
General Algorithms
Image Registration
Mathematical Techniques


General Algorithms
Also see efg's Color and Graphics Reference Library Pages

Algorithms

The Image Processing and Measurement Cookbook by Dr. John C. Russ
www.reindeergraphics.com/tutorial/index.shtml 

Conference Papers
http://poseidon.csd.auth.gr/papers/confers.l_ind.html 

Computer Vision Source Code
www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/cil/ftp/html/txtv-source.html

Algorithms
www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/Courses/FIP/noframes/fip--7.html

Basic image processing demos showing some basic image processing filters: thresholding, Gaussian filter, and Canny edge detector using MATLAB.
http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~sastry/ee20 or
http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~mayi/imgproc

Gaussian Masks, Scale Space and Edge Detection
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision3.html

The SUSAN algorithms cover image noise filtering, edge finding and corner finding.
www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/~steve/susan

Vision Systems Course
www.cm.cf.ac.uk/Dave/Vision_lecture/Vision_lecture_caller.html

Various Simple Image Processing Techniques
http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~pbourke/colour/imageprocess 

Algorithms commonly used in spectral processing methods
www.galactic.com/Algorithms  

Beyond Photography -- The Digital Darkroom
http://www.spinroot.com/pico  (online, Jan 2003)

Alpha blending pp. 150-154,  High Performance Computer Imaging
Antialiasing Aliasing and Antialiasing
www.education.siggraph.org/slides/slides93/28_93.htm

Antialiasing with Line Samples
www.merl.com/reports/TR2000-21/index.html 

Anti-vignetting http://starmatt.com/articles/av.html
Area efg's Polygon Area and Centroid Lab Report
Astrophotos Post-Processing Astrophotos
How to Put the Astro in Photographer
Star Shaping
Authentication Image Authentication for a Slippery New Age, Dr. Dobb's Journal, April 1995.
www.ddj.com/articles/1995/9504/9504a/9504a.htm
Bar Codes Introduction to Bar Coding
www.taltech.com/resources/intro_to_bc/introbc.htm
 
Biometrics Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition (book)

Also see Recognition, Faces and Recognition, Fingerprints below.

Books Digital Image Processing Algorithms and Applications
US  UK  DE 
Centroid efg's Polygon Area and Centroid Lab Report
Also see "Moments of Inertia" below
Chain Codes 7. Processing Line Drawings
http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~godfried/teaching/pr-web.html 
Chromaticity Charts efg's Color Reference Library
Classification Jean Vezina's  automatic tree species identification from digitized aerial photographs.  PowerPoint presentation for forestry audience, TreeID.ZIP.      Abstract.  

Fourier Descriptors Allow Web-Inspection System to Classify Plastic Shapes
Vision Systems Design, Dec. 98, pp. 25-35

Image Processing and Neural Networks Classify Complex Defects
Vision Systems Design, Mar. 99, pp. 63-70

Chapter 17, Classification, pp. 509-520
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Compression Image Compression, pp. 179-215
Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications

Image Compression, Chapter 9
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Compression Links
www.compression-pointers.com

Chapter 6, Image Compression, pp. 307-412
Digital Image Processing

Chapter 9, Image data compression, High Performance Computer Imaging
Huffman, run-length, DCT, JPEG (lossy and lossless), MPEG

Mitsuharu ARIMURA's Bookmarks on Source Coding/Data Compression
www.hn.is.uec.ac.jp/~arimura/compression_links.html

Condensation The Condensation Algorithm
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/LOCAL_COPIES/ISARD1/condensation.html 
Contrast

Contrast Stretching, pp. 54-59
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Contrast Perception
www.imagecontent.com/lucis/cpe.html

HistoStretch.gif (959 bytes)  efg's HistoStretchGrays Lab Report

Contrast Manipulation, pp. 228-232
The Image Processing Handbook

Also see Histograms below.

Counting Peaks Algorithm for counting peaks on chart
efg's
UseNet Post
efg's Pixel Profile Lab Report
Deconvolution Deconvolution, Fourier-Self
www.galactic.com/Algorithms/deconvle_fs.htm 

Blind Deconvolution Page
www.ls.eso.org/lasilla/Telescopes/360cat/adonis/Idac/bd/bd.html 

De-mosaicing Digital Camera Designers Face a Maze of Trade-Offs
www.eetimes.com/news/98/1003news/digital_camera.html
Detection, Buildings Building Detection in Aerial Images
www.imm.dtu.dk/documents/users/bro/thesis.abstract.html
Detection, Corners The SUSAN algorithms cover image noise filtering, edge finding and corner finding.
www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/~steve/susan
Detection, Edges Edge Detection, pp. 79-85
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

A New Method of Edge Detection
www.prettyview.com/edge/edge.shtml

3. Differentiation, Sharpening, Enhancement, Caricatures and Shape Morphing
http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~godfried/teaching/pr-web.html 

Evaluation of Subpixel Line and Edge Detection Precision and Accuracy
http://www9.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/papers/1998/ISPRS-Comm-III-98-Steger.abstract.html

Contour Extraction
www.geocities.com/kimdesok/Adoic/contour.html 

Edge Detection
www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/Vision_lecture/node24.html#SECTION00150000000000000000

Canny Edge Detector Code
ftp://figment.csee.usf.edu/pub/Edge_Comparison/source_code/canny.src

The Canny Edge Detector
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision3.html#heading7

Edges -- The Canny Edge Detector
www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/marble/vision/low/edges/canny.htm

"An Imaging Edge:  Tips and Technique for Edge Extraction"
Advanced Imaging, Jan 99, pp. 36-40

Understanding Edge- and Line-Based Segmentation
Vision Systems Design, Mar. 99, pp. 27-32
www.vision-systems-design.com/vsd/archive/1999/03/0399soft.html

"Data Structures:  Your Mind Doesn't Process Pixels, so why Should Your Software?"
Advanced Imaging, Mar 99, pp. 34-35, 55
Gives example of Kanizsa Square that has illusory edges.

J.F. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection", IEEE Patt. Anal.
Machine Intell., Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 55-73, 1990.

Sobel Masks for Edge Detection
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision2.html

Line and edge detection:  One simple test image
http://w3.ualg.pt/~dubuf/pubdat/ledge/ledge.html

The SUSAN algorithms cover image noise filtering, edge finding and corner finding.
www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/~steve/susan

Edges:  The Occurrence of Local Edges
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/LOCAL_COPIES/MARBLE/low/edges/occur.htm

Chapter 1, Advanced Edge-Detection Techniques
Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision

Chapter 12, Edges and Lines, pp. 387-413
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

pp. 177-179, High Performance Computer Imaging

Distortion Eliminating Distortion in Your Imaging System
www.edmundoptics.com/techsup/pdf/elim-distortion.pdf 

Nonlinear Lens Distortion
http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~pbourke/projection/nonlinear 

Dithering

Gernot Hoffmann's "Dithering + Halftoning" (includes Hilbert-Peano dithering, Floyd-Steinberg dithering)
www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/hilb010101.pdf 

Floyd-Steinberg
http://thorkildsen.no/faqsys/docs/dither.c

Dithering
http://thorkildsen.no/faqsys/docs/dither5.txt 
http://thorkildsen.no/faqsys/docs/dither9.txt 
http://thorkildsen.no/faqsys/docs/dither10.txt 
http://thorkildsen.no/faqsys/docs/dither2.txt 

Average, Floyd-Steinberg, Ordered, Random Dithering
www.visgraf.impa.br/Courses/ip00/proj/Dithering1/algoritmos_desenvolvidos.htm 

Test Page for Color Map Quantization (including Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion)
www.cs.berkeley.edu/~laura/colormaps.html

Halftoning
www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/user/webb/html/halftoning-paper.htm 

"A Balanced Dithering Technique," December 1998, C/C++ Users Journal

"Classic" dithering notes by Lee Cocker

Encryption / Decryption CryptImage.jpg (948 bytes)   efg's ImageCrypt Lab Report
Enhancement "Understanding Image Enhancement"
median filter, rank filter, Nagao filter (edge-enhancement and image smoothing), Weymouth/Overton filter, contrast enhancement
Vision Systems Design, July 1998, pp. 23-25; August 1998, pp. 21-24

Chapter 4, Image Enhancement, pp. 227-304
The Image Processing Handbook

Chapter 4, pp. 161-251
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition

Erosion Dr. John Russ' UseNet Post about erosion
Also see Skeletonization

Erosion and Dialation, pp. 129-135
Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications

Feature Extraction Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications, pp. 153-167
Filters Digital Filters
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/HIPR2/filtops.htm 

"Understanding Image-Filtering Algorithms"
spatial frequency, low-pass filtering, median filtering, high-pass, low-stop
Vision Systems Design, June 1998, pp. 19-24

Chapter 6, Image neighborhood filtering
High Performance Computer Imaging

Section 4.3, Spatial Filtering, pp. 189-200
Section 4.4, Enhancement in the Frequency Domain, pp. 201-218
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition

Image Filtering in the Frequency Domain
http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~pbourke/analysis/imagefilter 

Image Transformations and Filters
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/transf.htm 

Filters, Convolution Note from Lazikas o Pontios about convolution filters.

Dr. John Russ' UseNet Post to comp.graphics.algorithms (19 July 2000):
"... applying convolutions to the RGB channels in an image is usually wrong. For most purposes processing the image in an HSI space and modifying only the I channel, leaving the color information alone, produces the best results"

Convolution
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision2.html

Convolution, pp. 67-73
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Section 6.3, Linear filtering using convolution, High Performance Computer Imaging.
Discusses alternatives wasy to handle boundary pixels:
zero fill the edges, don't write the edges, extend the edges, reflect the edges

Chris Russ' UseNet Post about Fast Convolution Algorithms

Filters, Derivatives pp. 250-254, The Image Processing Handbook

Filters, Sobel and Kirsch
pp. 255-268, The Image Processing Handbook
pp. 178-179, High Performance Computer Imaging

First Order Derivatives Operators, pp. 86-88
Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, Frei-Chen;
Second Order Derivative Operators, pp. 88-93
Prewitt, Kirsch, Robinson (3-level, 5-level)
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Filters, Laplacian pp. 242-250,  The Image Processing Handbook

Gaussian Filter
www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/gauss25092001.pdf 

LoG (Laplacian of Gaussian):  Chris Russ' UseNet Post about LoG operators of various sizes

Filters,
Median and Rank
Optimal median smoothing, Applied Statistics, 44(2): 258-264, W. Haerdle, W. and M. Steiger, 1995.
Haerdle and Steiger's approach is O(log p) per pixel, where p is the width of the kernel. 
ftp://amadeus.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/pub/papers/sfb373/sfb1994/dpsfb940015.ps.Z 

Median Filtering, pp. 95-107 (includes color median filtering, p. 103)
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Fast Median Search: an ANSI C implementation
http://ndevilla.free.fr/median 

Median Filter
www.dca.fee.unicamp.br/dipcourse/html-dip/c9/s3/front-page.html 
www.cee.hw.ac.uk/hipr/html/median.html 

Adaptive Center Weighted Median Filter
http://Astro.MartianBachelor.com/CB245/ACWM.html 

Filtre Médian (3x3, 5x5)
http://callisto.si.usherb.ca/~98715732/ift539/

Diagram of optimal way to compute median value from 3x3 array in hardware. Use the same logic in software. www.xilinx.com/xcell/xl23/xl23_16.pdf

Median filters are useful tools in digital signal processing. Wesley examines their use for removing impulsive signal noise while maintaining signal trends. Additional resources include aa1099.txt (listings).
Dr. Dobb's Journal, October 1999.  www.ddj.com/articles/1999/9910/9910toc.htm

Spyros' UseNet Post about  Huang's Algorithm

Rank operations, pp. 268-277
The Image Processing Handbook

Section 6.4, Nonlinear filtering I:  the median filter and its variations
High Performance Computer Imaging

Filters, Morphological Section 6.5, High Performance Computer Imaging
Nonlinear filtering II:  morphological filters
Filters, Sharpening p. 177, High Performance Computer Imaging. Includes discussion of unsharp masking.

3. Differentiation, Sharpening, Enhancement, Caricatures and Shape Morphing
http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~godfried/teaching/pr-web.html 

Sharpening, pp. 77-79
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Filters, Smoothing pp. 176-177, High Performance Computer Imaging

Gaussian Smoothing
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/HIPR2/gsmooth.htm 

Filters, Unsharp Mask Chris Russ' UseNet Post about implementing unsharp mask
Chris Russ' UseNet Post about two common uses for unsharp mask

Unsharp masking is a photographic technique that increases the sharpness of photographic images. Tim presents an algorithm that implements this concept.   Additional resources include aa1199.zip (source code).
Dr. Dobb's Journal, Nov. 1999.  www.ddj.com/articles/1999/9911/9911toc.htm

Fingerprints See Recognition, Fingerprints
Fluorescence Imagnig Fluorescence Imaging Applications Guide 
Fluorescence Imaging Principles and Methods
Focus

Chris Russ' UseNet Post about AutoFocus methods

Fractal analysis pp. 282-288, The Image Processing Handbook
Gray Scales Perceptually Optimized Grayscales
www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/optigray06102001.pdf 
Gamma correction efg's Color Reference Library
Gray Scale Images Fast Gaussian blurring; Operations on gray scale images; Generalized order statistic filters; Contour construction for 2D image.  (Requires Magic Software)
www.magic-software.com/im_gray.htm
Halftoning A Review of Halftoning Techniques

Digital Halftoning, Chapter 6
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Gernot Hoffmann's "Dithering + Halftoning" 
www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/hilb010101.pdf
 

Histogram equalization

Use of computer graphic simulation to explain color histogram structure
www.graphics.cornell.edu/pubs/1997/PLG97.html

pp. 233- 241, The Image Processing Handbook
pp. 146-150,  High Performance Computer Imaging, includes discussion of adaptive histogram equalization

Histograms Display/Print Histograms (R, G, B, H, S, V)
ShowImageHistograms.jpg (4803 bytes)  efg's
Show Image

HistoStretch.gif (959 bytes)  efg's HistoStretchGrays Lab Report

Histogram-base Operations: Contrast stretching, equalization
www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/Courses/FIP/noframes/fip-istogram.html

Histogram Specification, pp. 49-54
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Histogram-based operations, pp. 143-150
High Performance Computer Imaging

Three-way histograms (RGB, YUV, HSI)
The Image Processing Handbook

Section 4.2.2, Histogram Processing, pp. 171-185
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition

Hough Transform

Hough Transform:  Journal and Conference Papers
http://ipml.ee.duth.gr/~papamark/Hough.html 

8. Detection of Structure in Noisy Pictures and Dot Patterns
http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~godfried/teaching/pr-web.html 

On the Efficient Sampling Interval of the Parameter in Hough Transform
www.ecip.tohoku.ac.jp/~hgot/HT

Hough Transforms
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision4.html
www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/Vision_lecture/node32.html#SECTION00162000000000000000

XHoughTool
www.lut.fi/dep/tite/XHoughtool/xhoughtool.html

Kim Madsen's UseNet Post about Hough Transform

Image Analogies http://mrl.nyu.edu/projects/image-analogies/index.html 
Image Query Fast Multiresolution Image Querying
www.cs.washington.edu/research/projects/grail2/www/projects/query

Shape Queries Using Image Databases
www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Research/VSSP/imagedb/demo.html

Also see book Wavelets for Computer Graphics

Interpolation and Extrapolation See Resampling

Michel Chabroux's UseNet Post explaining bilinear interpolation

Jitter Infrared jitter imaging data reduction algorithms
www.eso.org/projects/dfs/papers/jitter99 
Lens Transformation http://thorkildsen.no/faqsys/docs/lens.txt 

Nonlinear Lens Distortion
http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~pbourke/projection/nonlinear 

Computer Generated Angular Fisheye Projections
http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~pbourke/projection/fisheye 

Eric Rudd's UseNet Post about fisheye lens simulation

Lighting efg's Color Reference Library
Masks Chapter 7, Processing Binary Images, pp. 431-508
The Image Processing Handbook
Measurements Chapter 8, Image Measurements, pp. 509-574
The Image Processing Handbook

Chapter 16, Size and Shape, pp. 485-508
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Metamorphisis Feature-Based Image Metamorphosis
www.hammerhead.com/thad/morph.html
Metrology Metrology based on Computer Vision
www.cranfield.ac.uk/sme/amac/research/metrology/metrology.html
Moiré Methods "Moiré Methods Make Shape Recognition Easier"
Vision Systems Design, March 1997, pp. 32-37

Modelization of the Moiré Phenomenon
http://diwww.epfl.ch/w3lsp/pub/publications/moire

Moiré Effects With Overlayed Line Screens
www.education.siggraph.org/slides/slides95/s13.htm

Moments of Inertia www.cm.cf.ac.uk/Dave/AI2/node194.html

On the Calculation of Arbitrary Moments of Polygons
http://www9.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/forschung/fgbv/tech-reports/1996/FGBV-96-05-Steger.abstract.html

Morphology Understanding mathematical morphology
Vision Systems Design
, May 1999

Understanding more mathematical morphology
Vision Systems Design, June 1999

Morphological Image Analysis:  Principles and Applications (June 1999). Author's page

The Morphology Digest is intended as a forum between workers in the field of Mathematical Morphology and related fields (stochastic geometry, random set theory, image algebra, etc.).
www.cwi.nl/ftp/morphology/digest

Mathematical Morphology and Image Interpolation
http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~beucher/interpol/interpol.html

SDC Morphology Toolbox for MATLAB:   includes fast queue-based algorithms for distance transform, watershed, reconstruction, labeling, area-opening, etc.
www.mmorph.com

Mosaicing Rho Ophiucus Mosiac Processing Example
www.jps.net/jrfcomet/tech/rho.htm

An Introduction to Image Mosaicing
www.pitt.edu/~sevgum/research/mosaicing

Image Registration and Mosaicking
www.PrettyView.com/mtch/mtch.shtml

Automatic Panoramic Image Merging
www.sgi.com/grafica/merge/index.html

Mosaicing with Super Resolution
www.cs.huji.ac.il/~zomet/superResolution.html

Motion Image Sequence Segmentation
www.uwm.edu/~gjb/thesis.html

Estimation of Visual Motion in Image Sequences
www.imm.dtu.dk/documents/users/rl/publications/abstracts/phdthesis.abstract.html

Chris Russ' UseNet Post with suggestion on how to detect motion by image difference

Section 5.4.2, Removal of Blur Caused by Uniform Linear Motion, pp. 272-278
Section 7.5, The Use of Motion in Segmentation
Digital Image Processing

Motion
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision6.html

Introduction to Active Contours and Visual Dynamics
www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~ab/dynamics.html

Motion and Time Sequence Analysis
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/motion.htm

Thomas Kragh's UseNet Post about Motion Blur

Chapter 13, Orientation and Velocity, 415-440
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Neural Networks Neural Network as a Tool for Feature Selection
www.prettyview.com/ann/nnfs.shtml
Noise Removal Noise Removal from Images
www.math.berkeley.edu/~sethian/Movies/Movienoiseremoval.html 

The SUSAN algorithms cover image noise filtering, edge finding and corner finding.
www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/~steve/susan

Median filters are useful tools in digital signal processing. Wesley examines their use for removing impulsive signal noise while maintaining signal trends. Additional resources include aa1099.txt (listings).
Dr. Dobb's Journal, October 1999.  www.ddj.com/articles/1999/9910/9910toc.htm

Also see Median Filters

Nyquist Limit Using a Nyquist Chart to Evaluate Digital Camera Systems
Part 1.
www.photobit.com/Technology/White_Papers/Using_a_Nyquist_Chart_1/using_a_nyquist_chart_1.htm 

Part 2.  
www.photobit.com/Technology/White_Papers/Using_a_Nyquist_Chart_2/using_a_nyquist_chart_2.htm 

Optimization Using MMX Technology to Speed Up Machine Vision Algorithms
Part 1. www.imaging.com/techinfo/tutorials/00000009/tutorial.html 
Part 2. www.imaging.com/techinfo/tutorials/00000015/tutorial.html 
Panoramic Images Helmut Dersch's "Panorama Tools: Documentation, Info and More Uses"
http://www.fh-furtwangen.de/~dersch

(Be wary of IPIX, however.)

Perimeter efg's E-mail to Engineering Student at kmutt about how to computer perimeter of an object
Photogrammetry See General Info page
Point Operations Monadic image operations:  add constant, subtract constant, multiply constant, divide into constant, divide by constant, or constant, and constant, xor constant

Diadic image operations:  add, subtract, multiply, divide, min,max, or, and, xor

Radon Transform http://eivind.imm.dtu.dk/staff/ptoft/Radon/Radon.html
Recognition

Recognizing Flexible Objects
www.cs.cornell.edu/vision/pff/boom99

Point Pattern Matching
http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.eso.org/~ndevilla/point2  (Using Wayback Machine)

Chris Russ' UseNet Post about fixing broken lines in image recognition

Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis (book)

"Moiré Methods Make Shape Recognition Easier"
Vision Systems Design, March 1997, pp. 32-37

Chapter 9, Recognition and Interpretation, pp. 571-661
Digital Image Processing

See also Skeletonization

Recognition, Faces

The Face Detection Home Page
www.facedetection.com 

Face Recognition Home Page
www.cs.rug.nl/~peterkr/FACE/face.html

Multi-Modal System for Locating Heads and Faces
www.research.att.com/library/trs/TRs/96/96.5/96.5.1/96.5.1.abs.html

Locating Faces and Facial Parts
www.research.att.com/library/trs/TRs/96/96.4/96.4.1/96.4.1.body.htm

Bayesian Modeling of Facial Similarity
www.merl.com/reports/TR99-13/index.html 

Computer Vision Face Tracking For Use in a Perceptual User Interface
http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/q21998/articles/art_2.htm 

The Biometric Consortium, Research and Databases
Face, Fingerprints, Handwriting, Voice
www.biometrics.org/html/research.html

Face detection, recognition and analysis
www.cvc.uab.es/~jordi/cares.html

Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition   
US  UK

Recognition, Fingerprints Biometrics
http://dmoz.org/Computers/Security/Biometrics

The Biometric Consortium, Reseat and Databases
Face, Fingerprints, Handwriting, Voice
www.biometrics.org/html/research.html

Fingerprint Enhancement, www.kttech.com/fingerpr.html 

FBI Fingerprint Image Compression Standard
www.c3.lanl.gov/~brislawn/FBI/FBI.html

FAQ about FBI's Wavelet/Scalar Quantization Specification for compression of digitized gray-scale fingerprint images.
ftp://ftp.c3.lanl.gov/pub/misc/WSQ/FBI_WSQ_FAQ

Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition    US  UK

Recognition, Handwriting The Biometric Consortium, Reseat and Databases
Face, Fingerprints, Handwriting, Voice
www.biometrics.org/html/research.html

Fingerprints and handwriting
www.vision1.com/imagedb.html

NIST Form-Based Handprint Recognition System
www.nist.gov/itl/div894/894.03/databases/defs/nist_ocr.html

Recognition, Iris
Iris Recognition Homepage
www.iris-recognition.org 
Recognition, License Plates Vehicle Number Plate Recognition Home Page
Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
www.utad.pt/numberplate 

A Neural Network Based Artificial Vision System for Licence Plate Recognition
www.wspc.com/journals/ijns/81/drag.html

Recognition, Optical Character (OCR) Character Recognition
http://web.mit.edu/stanrost/www/cs585p1/p1.html 

Optical Character Recognition:  Journal and Conference Papers
http://ipml.ee.duth.gr/~papamark/OCR.html 

Character Recognition
http://www.cedar.buffalo.edu/Publications/TechReps/OCR/ocr.html 

OCR/ICR Documents
www.alumni.caltech.edu/~dave/patothr.html

Character Recognition by Feature Point Extraction
www.ccs.neu.edu/home/feneric/charrec.html

Document Understanding and  Character Recognition WWW Server
http://documents.cfar.umd.edu

Chapter 8, Optical Character Recognition, pp. 275-304
Chapter 9, Symbol Recognition, pp. 305-356
Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision

Geometry in Action
www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/gina/char.html

Recognition, Pattern Pattern Recognition Links
http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~godfried/teaching/pr-web.html 

Understanding Pattern Recognition, Visions Systems Design, July 1999.
Understanding More Pattern-Recognition Techniques, Visions Systems Design, Aug 1999, pp. 21-25

Pattern Recognition Resources, www.dcs.ex.ac.uk/paa/resources.htm

Pattern Recognition Information, www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/PRInfo.html

Statistical Pattern Recognition & Artificial Neural Network Library
SPRLIB & ANNLIB.  www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/~sprlib

Optimizing Vision Applications: Which is Better, Blob-Centroid or Grayscale Search?
www.imaging.com/techinfo/tutorials/00000016/tutorial.html 

"Red Eye" See efg's  Color and Computers page
Representation Chapter 8, Representation and Description, pp. 483-569
Digital Image Processing
Resampling Advanced Image Processing:  Image Interpolation and Filtering
www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~gec/248_s00_students/blake_carlson/hw2

Interpolation for Scaling, Rotation, Perspective and Morphing
www.fho-emden.de/~hoffmann/interpol181100.pdf 

Interpolation (Nearest Neighbor, Bilinear, Cubic Convolution, B-Spline), pp. 110-123
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications, pp. 117-122

Image Processing By Interpolation and Extrapolation
www.sgi.com/grafica/interp/index.html

Efficient Image Magnification by Bicubic Spline Interploation
http://members.bellatlantic.net/~vze2vrva/design.html 

Mathematical Morphology and Image Interpolation
http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~beucher/interpol/interpol.html

Section 8.3.2, "Interpolation," in
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications 
p. 269

Paul Heckbert's "zoom" program
www.cs.cmu.edu/~ph/src/zoom

Non-Linear Magnification Home Page
http://www.cs.indiana.edu/hyplan/tkeahey/research/nlm/nlm.html

Note from Lazikas o Pontios abut Resampling to zoom.

Testing Interpolator Quality
www.fh-furtwangen.de/~dersch/interpolator/interpolator.html 

Restoration, Reconstruction

Electronic Imaging, a Tool for the Reconstruction of Faded Color Photographs
http://www.foto.unibas.ch/research/paper1/restor.html

Image Restoration
www.dca.fee.unicamp.br/dipcourse/html-dip/c7/c7.html

"Novel Blind Deconvolution Techniques Restore Blurred Images"
Researchers are using blind-image deconvolution to automatically deblur telescope and microscope images.
Vision Systems Design, Nov. 98, pp. 35-41

Chapter 3, Correcting Image Defects, pp. 161-226
The Image Processing Handbook

Chapter 5, Image Restoration, pp. 253-306
Digital Image Processing

Chapter 6, Image Restoration, pp. 220-249
Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision

Chapter 9, Restoration and Reconstruction, pp. 287-306
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Rotation

Turn, Turn, Turn:  Using the Graphics Class to Rotate Images
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/periodic/period99/turn.htm

HOWTO: Display a Bitmap into a Rotated or Non-rectangular Area
(Using Windows 2000 "WarpBlt" API call)
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q186/5/89.ASP

"High Accuracy Rotation of Images," in Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, Vol. 54, No. 4, July 1992, pp. 340-344.

One-pass and multipass rotation, Section 8.5
High Performance Computer Imaging.

2-pass and 3-pass rotations
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications 
p. 107

comp.graphics.algorithms FAQ, Section 3.01, www.exaflop.org/docs/cgafaq

In Windows NT the plgblt API call can be used for bitmap rotation if the RC_BITBLT is supported by a device.

See efg's RotateScanline, RotatePixels and FlipReverseRotate Lab Reports.

Scaling Bitmap Scaling
www.ddj.com/ftp/1997/1997.04/asc.zip/2ddda.asc

Section 8.4, High Performance Computer Imaging, Image Scaling

Segmentation Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications, pp. 124-152

Image Segmentation and Mathematical Morphology
http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~beucher/wtshed.html 

Image Sequence Segmentation
www.uwm.edu/~gjb/thesis.html

Many image-analysis tasks must first separate the image into clearly defined regions. Lee's algorithm performs such a separation and presents the results in a fashion amenable to further study. Additional resources include aa798.txt (listings) and aa798.zip (source code).   July 1998, Dr. Dobb's Journal.  www.ddj.com/articles/1998/9807/9807toc.htm

Skin Cancer Segmentation program
www.cs.wright.edu/people/faculty/agoshtas/skinseg.html

Efficiently Computing a Good Segmentation
www.cs.cornell.edu/Vision/segmentation

Understanding Image Segmentation Basics
Vision Systems Design, Sept. 98; Oct. 98, pp. 20-22

Understanding Region-Based Segmentation
Vision Systems Design, Nov. 98, pp. 21-23

Understanding Oversegmentation and Region Merging
Vision Systems Design, Dec. 98, pp. 21-23

Understanding Undersegmentation and Region Splitting
Vision Systems Design, Feb. 99, pp. 16-19

Understanding Edge- and Line-Based Segmentation
Vision Systems Design, Mar. 99, pp. 27-32

Understanding other edge- and line-based segmentation techniques
Vision Systems Design
, Apr. 99

Segmentation
http://axon.physik.uni-bremen.de/research/segmentation

Color Image Segmentation (with C++ code)
www.caip.rutgers.edu/~comanici/segm_images.html

Unsupervised Segmentation
http://www-sigproc.eng.cam.ac.uk/~sab

Chapter 6, Segmentation and Thresholding, pp. 371-430
The Image Processing Handbook

Chapter 7, Image Segmentation, pp. 413-482
Digital Image Processing

Chapter 15, Segmentation, pp. 474-484
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Also see Segmentation on efg's Color Reference Library page

Shape from Shading A method for determining the shape of a surface from its image
www.psrw.com/image/ShapeFromShading/shape.html 
Sharpness see links under MTF
Skeletonization

Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications, pp. 137-139

The Scale Space Skeletonization Page
http://cyvision.if.sc.usp.br/msskeletons 

Hilditch's Algorithm for Skeletonization
http://jeff.cs.mcgill.ca/~godfried/teaching/projects97/azar/skeleton.html#algorithm

Skeletonization in 2D, 3D and 4D images
www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/~pieter/clop.html

Comparison of Skeletonization Methods
www.cs.wisc.edu/~cs766-1/spring99/hw/hw1-result.html

Skew Skew Correction
http://ipml.ee.duth.gr/~papamark/free_software2.htm 
Snakes Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake.  Active contours -- or snakes -- are computer-generated curves that move within images to find object boundaries.
http://iacl.ece.jhu.edu/projects/gvf

GVF snake for *nix boxes source code
ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/computer-vision/gsnake.tar

Snakes
www.tu-dresden.de/fghgipg/gen3.html

Active Snakes
www.crl.research.digital.com/projects/vision/snakes/snakes.html

Active Contours (Snakes)
www.persci.com/~schulze/snakes

Active contour models of shape or "snakes"
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision7.html

Snakes:  Active Contour Models
www.ee.oulu.fi/~jth/monitor/snakes.html

GSNAKE API
www.cs.wisc.edu/computer-vision/projects/gsnake.html

Special Effects Beyond Photography -- The Digital Darkroom (Out of Print, 1995)
Publisher Web Site: 
http://www.phptr.com/ptrbooks/ptr_0130744107.html
Spectroscopy USGS Imaging spectroscopy analysis: identify and map materials through spectroscopic remote sensing, on the earth and throughout the solar system.
http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov

About Imaging Spectroscopy, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/aboutimsp.html

Multispectral Scanner Landsat Data
http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/glis/hyper/guide/landsat

Steganography The information hiding homepage - digital watermarking & steganography
www.cl.cam.ac.uk/%7Efapp2/steganography 

Steganography
www.jjtc.com/stegdoc 

Steganography & Digital Watermarking
www.jjtc.com/Steganography 

Steganography/Watermarking Information
www.tml.hut.fi/~helger/crypto/link/steganography 

Stenography and Digital Watermarks
www.infosyssec.org/infosyssec/stendig1.htm 

Also see watermarking

Stereoscopic Vision Stereo pair displays of surface range images
http://members.AOL.com/DrJohnRuss/stereo.pdf

Single-Image Stereograms, July 1995, Dr. Dobb's Journal.
www.ddj.com/articles/1995/9507/9507toc.htm

Stereoscopic, or true 3-D, images take into account depth information that's lost when conventional 3-D images are projected onto a PC's 2-D screen. In addition to discussing hardware and software stereoscopic requirements, our authors present and implement algorithms for generating left- and right-eye views fundamental to stereoscopic viewing.   April 1994, Dr. Dobb's Journal.  www.ddj.com/articles/1993/9304/9304toc.htm

Stereoscopic Vision and Perspective Projection
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/davidy/teachvision/vision5.html

Stereo Vision
http://axon.physik.uni-bremen.de/research/stereo

Texture Fast Marble Texture Algorithm
www.cubic.org/~submissive/sourcerer/marble.htm

pp. 278-282, The Image Processing Handbook

Chapter 4, Texture, pp 150-175
Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision

Chapter 14, Scale and Texture, pp. 441-469
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Thermal Imaging "Thermal Imaging Is Gaining Acceptance as a Diagnostic Tool"
Biophotonics International, Nov/Dec 1998, pp. 48-53
Thresholding Chapter 6, Segmentation and Thresholding, pp. 371-430
The Image Processing Handbook

Section 7.3, Thresholding, pp. 443-457
Digital Image Processing

Transformation Image Transformations (Chapter 7)
Frequency Domain; Discrete Fourier Transform; FFT; Discrete Cosine Transform
Simplified Approach to Image Processing
Transformation, Affine Affine transformation software
http://bigwww.epfl.ch/thevenaz/affine/index.html 

Affine texture mapping is fundamental to many forms of 3D rendering, including light interpolation and other sampling type operations. Additional resources include tmapper.txt (listings) and tmapsrc.zip (source code).  Dr. Dobb's Journal, July 1998.   www.ddj.com/articles/1998/9807/9807toc.htm

Section 8.6, High Performance Computer Imaging, Affine transformation

Curvature Scale Space image under affine transforms
www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Research/VSSP/imagedb/affine.html

Transformation, Special effects Section 8.8, High Performance Computer Imaging, Special-effects filters.
Shows radial transformation

Spatial Transformations (affine, perspective, bilinear, meshwarp)
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Transparency Sean Dockery's UseNet Post about Transparency including links to Microsoft Technical Reports
Triangle Intersection Triangle Intersection Tests
Dr. Dobb's Journal, August 2000
Unsharp Masking "Real" Digital Unsharp Masking:  A Digital Equivalent to a Film Technique
www.astropix.com/HTML/J_DIGIT/USM.HTM 
Warping Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications, pp. 115-117

Fields-Based Warping, pp. 234-243
Simplified Approach to Image Processing

Watermarking nformation Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking
by Fabien Petitcolas and Stefan Katzenbeisser  US  UK
Author's Web Site

The information hiding homepage - digital watermarking & steganography
www.cl.cam.ac.uk/%7Efapp2/steganography 

Digital Watermarking World
www.watermarkingworld.org 

Invisible Watermarking:  Protecting Digital Pictures
www.kodak.com/US/en/corp/researchDevelopment/technologyFeatures/digitalWatermarking.shtml 

References on Multimedia Watermarking and Data Hiding Research & Technology
www.nt.e-technik.uni-erlangen.de/~hartung/watermarkinglinks.html 
www.lnt.de/~hartung/watermarkinglinks.html

Watermarking of Video and Multimedia Data
www.lnt.de/~hartung/watermarking.html

Digital watermarking: perfecting the art of security
www.spie.org/web/oer/november/nov99/cover1.html 

Digital Watermarking
www.acm.org/~hlb/publications/dig_wtr/dig_watr.html 

Digital Watermarking: a solution to Electronic Copyright Management Systems Requirements
www.medicif.org/dig_library/StateArt/Ipr/Piva/piva_doc.html 

Watermarking of Digital Images
www.csee.usf.edu/~smohanty/personal/project.html 

Also see Steganography

Watershed Transformation Watershet Edge Detection, pp. 148-153
Digital Image Processing:  Principles and Applications

Several papers on Watershed algorithms
www.rug.nl/hpc/people/arnold 

SDC Morphology Toolbox for MATLAB:   includes fast queue-based algorithms for distance transform, watershed, reconstruction, labeling, area-opening, etc. www.mmorph.com

Watershed Transform
www.geocities.com/kimdesok/#Watershed 

Image segmentation problems in mathematical morphology
http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~beucher/wtshed.html

Zoom See Resampling

Image Registration

Automated Image Registration http://bishopw.loni.ucla.edu/AIR5 
Automatic Panoramic Image Merging www.sgi.com/grafica/merge/index.html
Automatic Registration of SAR Images and Digitized Maps www.engr.mun.ca/~charlesr/summary.html
Bibliography Michael Jacobs' UseNet Post with many references to journal articles
CISG Registration Toolkit www-ipg.umds.ac.uk/cisg/vtk-software 
Cross-Correlation Fast Normalized Cross-Correlation
www.idiom.com/~zilla/Papers/nvisionInterface/nip.html
Elastic Image Registration www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/ElasChpt.html

Elastic Imaging Registration and Pathology Detection
http://www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/PDF/no_pics_ElasChpt.pdf
FFT Reddy, B. Srinivasa and B. N. Chatterji, "An FFT-Based Technique for Translation, Rotation, and Scale-Invariant Image Registration," IEEE Trans. Image Processing vol. 5, no. 8 (1996 August) pp. 1266-1271.
FLIRT FLIRT is software for linear image registration, which is part of FSL
www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl 
Image Matching and Registration www.dra.hmg.gb/cis5/ipi13b.html
Image Matching by Maximisation of Mutual Information www.robots.ox.ac.uk:5000/~seb/matching/mutual_info.html
Image Registration

Special Issue of Pattern Recognition on Image Registration
www.cs.wright.edu/people/faculty/agoshtas/ImgReg.html

Image Registration and Mosaicking www.prettyview.com/mtch/mtch.shtml
Image Registration Technology KT-Tech, Inc.
www.kttech.com/top/reg.htm
Matching Algorithms for Medical Image Processing http://mbi.dkfz-heidelberg.de/mbi/research/matching.html
Medical Image Registration New Book (June 2001)  US  UK  DE  FR
Medical Image Registration using Geometric Hashing www.computer.org/cse/cs1997/c4029abs.htm
Multimodality Medical Image Registration www.seas.gwu.edu/seas/institutes/medimage/registration
Raw Image Registration NewSips System
www.vilspa.esa.es/iue/IUEFA/manual/chap00/node26.html

Cross-Corr
http://archive.stsci.edu/iue/manual/newsips/node36.html

Retrospective Registration Evaluation Project www.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/~jayw
Role of Image Registration in Brain Mapping www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/IVCJ_99.html
www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/PDF/IVCJ_99.pdf
Survey of image registration techniques Abstract from ACM Computing Surveys, Vol 24., No. 4, Dec 92, pp. 325-376
Survey of Medical Image Registration J.B.A. Maintz, Medical Image Analysis, 2(1):1-36, 1998.
www.cs.uu.nl/people/twan/personal/media97.pdf

An overview of medical image registration methods. In Symposium of the Belgian hospital physicists association (SBPH/BVZF), volume 12, pages V:1-22, 1996/1997.
www.cs.uu.nl/people/twan/personal/brussel_bvz.pdf

Author's Bibliographical Information:    www.cs.uu.nl/people/twan/personal/list.html

3D Image Registration of CT Angiography www.ee.princeton.edu/~mingy/cta
3D Image Registration for Sculptors www.sculptor.org/register.htm

Mathematical Techniques
Also see Fourier Analysis and Wavelets Sections of efg's Mathematics Page

DCTs Implementing Fast DCTs (Discrete Cosine Transforms)
Dr. Dobb's Journal, March 1999, pp. 115-119
Fast Hartley Transform Hartley Transform
www.treasure-troves.com/math/HartleyTransform.html

Note:  According to a letter to the editor in the July 1999 "Embedded Systems Programming" (p. 7) the Fast Hartley Transform is covered under U.S. Patent Number 4,646,256.  Use of this algorithm for noncommercial research must be negotiated with the Office of Technology Licensing at Stanford University.

Geometry Vision Geometry and Mathematics
www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/geom.htm

Section 2.5, Imaging Geometry, pp. 51-71
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition

Chapter 8, Geometry, pp. 263-286
Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications

Chapter 8, Image geometric operations
High Performance Computer Imaging

Image Quality IQM Approach:  Obtain Quality from Image Power Spectrum
www.mitre.org/technology/mtf/poster.pdf

Objective Image Quality Measure Derived from Digital Image Power Spectra
Norman B. Nill, Optical Engineering, April 1992, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 813-825
www.mitre.org/technology/mtf/opteng.pdf

Also see Modulation Transfer Function below

Image Transforms Chapter 3, pp. 81-159
Fourier Transform (3.1), Walsh Transform (3.5.1),
Hadamard Transform (3.5.2), Discrete Cosine Transform (3.5.3),
Haar Transform (3.5.4), Slant Transform (3.5.5), Hotelling Transform (3.6)
Digital Image Processing
, 2nd edition
Modulation Transfer Function Random Test Patterns To Evaluate MTF 
www.precisionopticalimaging.com/notes/notes.asp   

Understanding image sharpness part 1:  resolution and MTF curves in film and lenses.  www.normankoren.com/Tutorials/MTF.html 

Understanding image sharpness part 2:  resolution and MTF curves in scanners and sharpening
www.normankoren.com/Tutorials/MTF2.html 

Understanding MTF Testing
www.edmundoptics.com/techsup/tsb/mtftest.cfm 

How to interpret MTF Graphs
www.photozone.de/mtf.htm

Use of Sinusoidal Test Patterns for MTF Evaluation
www.sinepatterns.com/MTF/EngNotes.htm

Image Quality Evaluation:  Modulation Transfer Function
http://www.mitre.org/tech/mtf 

What is a MTF Curve?
http://perso.club-internet.fr/legault/mtf.html

Moments Section 8.3.4, Moments, pp. 514-518
Digital Image Processing
Matrices Matrix Operations for Image Processing
www.sgi.com/grafica/matrix/index.html
Point Spread Functions The point-spread function (PSF) model of blurring
http://extreme.indiana.edu/~tveldhui/papers/MAScThesis/node10.html

Point Spread Function of Imaging System (diagram)
www.vislab.usyd.edu.au/CP3/Four5/node2.html

Point spread function of the human eye obtained by a dual double-pass method
www.iop.org/PEL/abstract/pa07001l2

Point and Line Spread Functions
www.yorku.ca/eye/psf.htm

ACIS/HRMA Point Spread Function
www.astro.psu.edu/xray/docs/cal_report/node150.html

Statistics Statistics and Image Processing
www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/Courses/FIP/noframes/fip-Statisti.html
White Balance  White Balance Patents
www.frontiernet.net/~shyam/whitebalance.htm
 

Updated 14 Jun 2009
Since 7 Nov 1998